Environmental Factors Affecting Agricultural Production


Environmental factors affecting agricultural production can be grouped into:

  • Climate factors
  • Biotic factors
  • Edaphic factors.


This is defined as the average weather condition of a place measured over a long period.

Factors of climate

It includes rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, light, wind, pressure.

Each of the factors has an influence on agriculture. This is shown by the distribution of vegetation and crops in the climatic zones. The result is that when the soil condition is favourable, thick evergreen forest develops.

1) Rainfall:

Is defined as the amount and distribution of water precipitation within a given time in a given area.

Rainfall distribution and pattern

West Africa is known for its high temperature throughout the year. It is brought about by the south-west monsoon trade wind blowing from the Atlantic Ocean.

The wind blowing from the ocean to the inland drops some water. A narrow part of the coast has rainfall throughout the year against the rest of the region. As we move from the coast, the amount of rainfall decreases. By the time the wind gets to the northern part of the country, there is little or no moisture left in it. Here, less rainfall is experienced per year. In the coastal area, the raining season ranges from 8 months to all year round while in the north, raining season lasts only 3 to 4 months.

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