5 Major Problem of Education in Nigeria and Solutions

Education is an essential aspect of human development and growth, providing the necessary skills, knowledge, and values that shape individuals and societies. In Nigeria, education is highly valued, and the government has made significant efforts to promote it. However, the Nigerian education system has been plagued by several problems that have hindered its effectiveness in achieving its goals. These problems range from inadequate funding, poor infrastructure, inadequate teaching personnel, and lack of educational resources, to issues of policy implementation and societal attitudes toward education. This Article will discuss some of the major problem of Education in Nigeria and suggest direct solutions.

These challenges have resulted in a decline in the quality of education, leading to a rise in illiteracy rates and a lack of skilled manpower in the country. These issues have also made it challenging for Nigeria to keep up with the rapid changes and advancements in the global economy, where education plays a crucial role in driving growth and development.

What are the major problem of education in Nigeria?

It is crucial to address these challenges and find solutions that can help to transform the education sector in Nigeria. This article will discuss the major problems facing the Nigerian education system and propose solutions to tackle them. By doing so, we hope to raise awareness and stimulate discussions on how to improve education in Nigeria and ensure that it remains a catalyst for growth and development in the country.

1. Poor Funding

The issue of inadequate funding is a major problem of Education in Nigeria. This problem has persisted over the years, and it has continued to affect the quality of education in the country negatively. The Nigerian government’s budget allocation to the education sector is far below the recommended 26% by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This budgetary shortfall has made it difficult for educational institutions in Nigeria to provide quality education.

The poor funding has resulted in the lack of necessary infrastructures such as well-equipped laboratories, libraries, and classrooms, amongst others. This situation has made teaching and learning activities challenging in Nigeria. Some schools are overcrowded, and teachers are forced to manage large classes, leading to a poor teacher-to-student ratio. This challenge makes it difficult for teachers to give individual attention to students, which is necessary for effective teaching and learning.

Inadequate funding has also resulted in insufficient resources such as textbooks, computers, and internet access, which are essential for effective teaching and learning. Without access to these resources, students cannot keep up with the fast-paced world of technology, and it becomes difficult to meet up with the global standards of education. This lack of resources affects students’ learning outcomes and hampers their ability to compete on a global scale.

The Solution to Poor Funding

To address this problem, the Nigerian government and Private Institutions need to increase their funding to the education sector. This increase in funding will provide the necessary resources and infrastructures needed to improve the quality of education in Nigeria. There is a need for proper allocation of funds to the education sector to ensure that resources are used efficiently and effectively. The government can also partner with the private sector to provide financial support to the education sector. This partnership can come in the form of scholarship schemes, educational grants, and corporate social responsibility initiatives aimed at improving the quality of education in Nigeria.

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2. Lack of Adequate Infrastructure

The lack of adequate infrastructure is a major problem in the Nigerian education sector, especially in rural areas where many schools are located. The inadequate infrastructure in these schools is due to poor planning, budget constraints, and a lack of maintenance culture. In some cases, the infrastructure is either nonexistent or dilapidated, which negatively impacts the quality of education.

Inadequate infrastructure also affects the learning experience of students. For instance, overcrowded classrooms make it difficult for teachers to manage their classes effectively, resulting in poor academic performance. Additionally, the absence of libraries and laboratories limits students’ access to research materials and practical learning opportunities.

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The solution to Lack of Adequate Infrastructure

To address this problem, the government needs to invest more in infrastructure development in the education sector. This investment should focus on building and renovating schools, providing basic amenities like water, sanitation, and electricity, and equipping schools with the necessary tools for effective teaching and learning. Private sector organizations can also partner with the government to provide infrastructure and resources to schools, especially in rural areas.

Furthermore, the government should establish policies that ensure that schools are adequately maintained and that the infrastructure provided is of high quality. This can be achieved through regular inspections, monitoring, and evaluation of school facilities. The government can also encourage public-private partnerships to ensure that schools are adequately maintained, and resources are appropriately utilized. By investing in infrastructure development, the Nigerian education system can be improved, providing a better learning environment for students and a more effective teaching environment for educators.

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3. Poor Quality of Teachers

To elaborate further on the issue of poor quality of teachers in Nigeria, it is essential to note that the problem is not just limited to their qualifications and training, but also their motivation. Many teachers in Nigeria are not motivated to teach due to poor working conditions, low salaries, and a lack of incentives. This has led to a high turnover rate of teachers, and in some cases, the absence of teachers in schools.

The Solution to Poor Quality of Teachers

The solution to this problem is for the government and Private Institutions to provide better working conditions and incentives for teachers. This can be done through the provision of better salaries, training opportunities, and other benefits that can motivate teachers to perform better. Additionally, there should be a concerted effort to improve the quality of teacher training in Nigeria, including the development of more comprehensive teacher training programs that focus on improving pedagogical skills, subject knowledge, and classroom management.

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4. Lack of Access to Education

The lack of access to education in Nigeria is a major problem that affects many people, particularly those living in rural areas. Many families in these areas cannot afford to send their children to school due to poverty, which leads to a cycle of illiteracy and poverty. This problem is further compounded by the lack of infrastructure in these areas, making it difficult for students to access schools even if they have the means to pay for their education.

The Solution to Lack of Access to Education

To address this problem, the government must ensure that education is accessible to all Nigerians, regardless of their location or economic status. This can be done by providing free education and scholarships to students in rural areas, as well as building schools and providing the necessary infrastructure to make them accessible. The government can also work with non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders to provide educational materials and support to students in these areas.

The government can use technology to provide access to education to people in remote areas. For instance, online learning platforms and other e-learning tools can be used to provide education to people who are unable to attend physical schools. This will help bridge the gap in access to education and ensure that more Nigerians have access to quality education.

5. Corruption

Corruption is a deeply entrenched problem in Nigeria that has infiltrated every aspect of society, including the education sector. The corrupt practices in the education sector have negatively impacted the quality of education and undermined the trust of the public in the system.

One of the most common forms of corruption in the education sector is the sale of admission forms, where students pay to gain admission to universities, colleges, and other educational institutions. This practice has resulted in the admission of unqualified candidates who have the means to pay for the forms while deserving candidates are left out. This has led to a decline in the quality of education as unqualified students struggle to keep up with the academic demands of the courses.

Another corrupt practice in the education sector is the buying and selling of grades, where students bribe lecturers or teachers to obtain good grades, even if they have not met the academic requirements. This has resulted in the graduation of unqualified students who lack the necessary knowledge and skills to contribute meaningfully to society.

Solution to Corruption

To combat corruption in the education sector, there is a need for the government and educational institutions to take proactive measures to punish those involved in corrupt practices. This includes the establishment of anti-corruption agencies within educational institutions, the use of technology to monitor activities in the sector, and the provision of protection for whistleblowers who report corrupt practices.

Additionally, the government should also work to improve the overall governance and transparency in the country, as corruption in the education sector is often linked to corruption in other sectors. This includes strengthening the legal framework for fighting corruption, providing adequate resources to anti-corruption agencies, and ensuring that those involved in corrupt practices are held accountable for their actions.


In conclusion, the problems facing education in Nigeria are numerous and require urgent attention. Adequate funding, provision of infrastructure, accessibility to education, and elimination of corruption are some of the significant challenges that need to be addressed. The government, educational stakeholders, and citizens must work together to implement sustainable solutions to improve the quality of education in Nigeria. With a concerted effort and commitment, Nigeria can achieve a more educated and prosperous society.

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